Theology starts with dogmas, philosophy begins with problems. Philosophy sees the problem first, theology has the answer in advance.
We must not, however, disregard another important difference. Not only are the problems of philosophy not identical with the problems of religion; their status is not the same.
Philosophy is, in a sense, a kind of thinking that has a beginning but no end. In it, the awareness of the problem outlives all solutions. Its answers are questions in disguise; every new answer giving rise to new questions.
In religion, on the other hand, the mystery of the answer hovers over all questions.
- Abraham Joshua Heschel, God in Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism (1955)