“Spiritualities” and “religions” might be roughly characterized as the
individual and institutional poles within the general domain of
“religion”. A religion without spiritualities is impossible to imagine.
But, as will be seen, the reverse—a spirituality without a religion—is
quite possible in principle. Spiritualities can emerge on the basis of
an existing religion, but they can very well do without…
(p. 151 )
Hanegraaf, W. J. (1999). New Age Spiritualities as Secular Religion: a Historian’s
Perspective. Social Compass, 46(2), 145-160.