I am grateful to Martin Cortazzi for pointing…

I am grateful to Martin Cortazzi for pointing out that a unitive

presentation of heart- mind has a long history. He tells me that

heart-mind corresponds to ‘xin’ in Chinese, (sometimes transcribed as

‘hsin’). (Peter Harvey also points out that ‘citta’ in Sanskrit, as

used in Indian Buddhism, has the same meaning)

Hansen (1989 p. 97) explains that ‘We use ‘heart-mind’ to translate

xin. This is because the philosophical psychology of ancient China did

not use a cognitive/affective contrast in their talk of well-honed

human performance…’

He also points out (1992 p. 20) that ‘The common translation of xin

as heart-mind reflects the blending of belief and desire (thought and

feeling, ideas and emotions) into a single complex dispositional


Tu ( 1985 p. 32) provides further evidence in saying:

…the Confucian hsin [xin] must be glossed as ‘heart-mind’ because it

involves both cognitive and affective dimensions of human relations.

This ‘fruitful ambiguity’ is perhaps the result of a deliberate

refusal rather than an unintended failure to make a sharp distinction

between conscience and consciousness. To Yang-Ming [Wang Yang-Ming,

neo-Confucian philosopher 1477-1529] consciousness as cognition and

conscience as affection are not two separable functions of the mind.

Rather, they are integral aspects of a dynamic process whereby man

becomes aware of himself as a moral being. Indeed, the source of

morality depends on their inseparability in a pre-reflective faculty.

Author: Roger - Dr Roger Prentice

Now I write, teach and coach mainly about 21stC 'interfaith as inter-spirituality' - and how we can grow closer to our True Self. . As anyone who knows anything about IPF will realize my energy is curtailed - so I am concentrating primarily on 'inter-spirituality'. . In the past I would have said that: . 1) I run courses and give talks at conferences and in universities and colleges in the UK, China, USA, Canada, Scandinavia etc. . 2) I provide materials, outlines and lessons for Schools. . 3) My range of interests include personal development, learning and teaching, photography and film, the arts generally, spirituality and educational practice and theory. . 4) At the same time I continue developing the human-centred studies SunWALK PDS (People Development System) - a whole-person, high-achievement model for individuals, and for use in, NGOs, schools and other organizations. . 5) The key question that continues to animate me and my work remains, "What is it to be fully and positively human?" . Contact me via onesummit AT gmail DOT com (replace At with@ etc.). . All good wishes Roger (Dr Roger Prentice) . For those interested; My first degree is in English and Education. My masters is in Adult and Community Education. My doctorate presented a new holistic meta-model of education called SunWALK.

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