Regard thou faith as a tree. Its fruits,…

Regard thou faith as a tree. Its fruits, leaves, boughs and branches are, and have ever been, trustworthiness, truthfulness, uprightness and forbearance.

~ Bahá’u’lláh

Croce’s Aesthetics First published Sun …

Croce’s Aesthetics –
First published Sun May 4, 2008; substantive revision Mon Aug 31, 2009

The Neapolitan Benedetto Croce (1860–1952) was a dominant figure in the first half of the twentieth century in aesthetics and literary criticism as well as philosophy generally, but his fame did not last, in either Italy or the English speaking world. He did not lack promulgators and willing translators into English; H. Carr was an early example of the former, R. G. Collingwood was both, and D. Ainslie did the latter service for most of Croce’s principal works. But his star rapidly declined after the Second World War. Indeed it is hard to find a figure whose reputation has fallen so far and so quickly; the fact is somewhat unfair not least because Collingwood’s aesthetics is still studied, when it is mostly borrowed from Croce. The causes are a matter for speculation, but two are likely. First, Croce’s general philosophy was very much of the preceding century. As the idealistic and historicist systems of Bradley, Green, and Joachim were in Britain superseded by Russell and Ayer and analytical philosophy, Croce’s system was swept away by new ideas on the continent—from Heidegger on the one hand to deconstructionism on the other. Second, Croce’s manner of presentation in his famous early works now seems, not to put too fine a point on it, dismissively dogmatic; it is full of the youthful conviction and fury that seldom wears well. On certain key points, opposing positions are characterized as foolish, or as confused expressions of simple truths that only waited upon Croce to articulate properly. Of course, these dismissals carry some weight—Croce’s reading is prodigious and there is more insight beneath the words than initially meets the eye—but unless the reader were already convinced that here at last is the truth, their sheer number and vehemence will arouse mistrust. And since the early works, along with his long running editorship of the journal La Critica, rocketed him to such fame and admiration, whereas later years were devoted among other things to battling with while being tolerated by fascists, it’s not surprising that he never quite lost this habit.

Nevertheless, Croce’s signal contribution to aesthetics—that art is expression—can be more or less be detached from the surrounding philosophy and polemics. In what follows, we will first see the doctrine as connected to its original philosophical context, then we will attempt to snip the connections.

* 1. The Four Domains of Spirit (or Mind)
* 2. The Primacy of the Aesthetic
* 3. Art and Aesthetics
* 4. Intuition and Expression
o 4.1 The Double Ideality of the Work of Art
o 4.2 The Role of Feeling
o 4.3 Feeling, Expression and the Commonplace
* 5. Natural Expression, Beauty and Hedonic Theory
* 6. Externalization
* 7. Judgement, Criticism and Taste
* 8. The Identity of Art and Language
* 9. Later Developments
* 10. Problems
o 10.1 Acting versus Contemplation
o 10.2 Privacy
o 10.3 The View of Language
* 11. Conclusion
* Bibliography
o Primary Sources
o Secondary Sources
* Other Internet Resources
* Related Entries

Major paper on Liberal Feminism – http:…

Major paper on Liberal Feminism –

Classical liberal or libertarian feminists hold that the right to freedom from coercive interference has powerful implications for women’s lives. It implies that women have the right to freedom in intimate, sexual and reproductive matters. This includes sexual autonomy (the right to engage in sexual activity of one’s choosing including the buying and selling of sex (Almodovar 2002; Lehrman 1997, 23), and the right to defend oneself against sexual aggression, including the use of firearms (Stevens et al. 2002)); freedom of expression (the right to appear in, publish, and consume pornography free of censorship (McElroy 1995; Strossen 2000)); freedom of intimate association (the right to partner or enter into a private marriage contract (McElroy 1991a, 20)); and reproductive freedom (the right to use birth control, have an abortion (on the minority of pro-life libertarians see Tabarrok 2002, 157), and buy and sell bodily reproductive services as in surrogate motherhood (Lehrman 1997, 22; McElroy 2002c; Paul 2002)). Freedom from interference with person and property also means that women have the right to engage in economic activity in a free market, entering contracts, and acquiring, controlling and transferring property free of sexist state limits (Epstein 1992; Kirp, Yudolf, and Franks 1986, 204).

Human, rights, sexuality, gender, equality,

the purpose for which mortal men have, f…

the purpose for which mortal men have, from utter nothingness, stepped into the realm of being, is that they may work for the betterment of the world and live together in concord and harmony.

(Compilations, The Compilation of Compilations vol II, p. 331)